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Chemical Identification
Common Name
Permethrin
中文通用名
氯菊酯
IUPAC
3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS,3RS;1RS,3SR)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
or
3-phenoxybenzyl (1RS)-cis-trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2- dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
CAS
(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
CAS No.
52645-53-1
Molecular Formula
C21H20Cl2O3
Molecular Structure
Category
Activity
Permethrin is a common synthetic chemical, widely used as an insecticide, acaricide, and insect repellent. It belongs to the family of synthetic chemicals called pyrethroids and functions as a neurotoxin, affecting neuron membranes by prolonging sodium channel activation.
Permethrin is used against a number of pests, on nut, fruit, vegetable, cotton, ornamental, mushroom, potato and cereal crops. It is used in greenhouses, home gardens and for termite control. It also controls animal ectoparasites, biting flies, and cockroaches . It may cause a mite buildup by reducing mite predator populations.
CropUse
nut, fruit, vegetable, cotton, ornamental, mushroom, potato and cereal
Formulation
DP = Dustable powder
FK = Smoke candle
Premix
Chlorpyrifos+cypermethrin
Acetamiprid+beta-cypermethrin
Acetamiprid+cypermethrin
Imidacloprid+carbosulfan+zeta-cypermethrin
Imidacloprid+beta-cypermethrin
Imidacloprid+cypermethrin
Endosulfan+cypermethrin
Permethrin+bioallethrin
Permethrin+bioallethrin+Piperonyl butoxide
Permethrin+bronopol
Permethrin+carboxin
Permethrin+diazinon
Permethrin+dichlofluanid+tebuconazole
Permethrin+Piperonyl butoxide
Permethrin+Piperonyl butoxide+tetramethrin
Permethrin+tebuconazole
Permethrin+tetramethrin
Permethrin+chlorpyrifos
Permethrin+phoxim
Cypermethrin+diazinon
Cypermethrin+dimethoate
Cypermethrin+ethion
Cypermethrin+fenitrothion
Cypermethrin+phenthoate
Cypermethrin+phoxim
Cypermethrin+Piperonyl butoxide
Cypermethrin+Piperonyl butoxide+tetramethrin
Cypermethrin+profenofos
Cypermethrin+quinalphos
Cypermethrin+tetramethrin
Bioallethrin+zeta-cypermethrin
Alpha-cypermethrin+chlorpyrifos
Hexaflumuron+alpha-cypermethrin
Beta-cypermethrin+abamectin
Beta-cypermethrin+malathion
Beta-cypermethrin+quinalphos
Fenoxycarb+beta-cypermethrin
Profenofos+beta-cypermethrin
Tebufenozide+beta-cypermethrin
Diflubenzuron+beta-cypermethrin
Trichlorfon+beta-cypermethrin
Dichlorvos+beta-cypermethrin
Chlorpyrifos+beta-cypermethrin
Chlorfluazuron+beta-cypermethrin
Hexaflumuron+beta-cypermethrin
Beta-cypermethrin+emamectin benzoate
Beta-cypermethrin+chlorpyrifos-methyl
Beta-cypermethrin+endosulfan
Beta-cypermethrin+malathion+phoxim
Beta-cypermethrin+hanpv
Beta-cypermethrin+methomyl
Beta-cypermethrin+methomyl+phoxim
Beta-cypermethrin+buprofezin
Beta-cypermethrin+triazophos
Beta-cypermethrin+thiosultap-monosodium
Beta-cypermethrin+isocarbophos
Beta-cypermethrin+isocarbophos+phoxim
Beta-cypermethrin+bacillus thuringiensis
Beta-cypermethrin+SlMNPV
Beta-cypermethrin+phoxim
Beta-cypermethrin+phosmet
Beta-cypermethrin+omethoate
Beta-cypermethrin+acephate
Beta-cypermethrin+fenobucarb
Cypermethrin+malathion
acetamiprid+alpha-cypermethrin
bifenthrin+zeta-cypermethrin+imidacloprid
CYPERMETHRIN+FLUTRIAFOL
PERMETHRIN+TRANSFLUTHRIN
CYPERMETHRIN+TEBUCONAZOLE
PERMETHRIN+PROPICONAZOLE+TEBUCONAZOLE
CYPERMETHRIN+TRITICONAZOLE
IMIPROTHRIN+CYPERMETHRIN
CYPERMETHRIN+TRIADIMENOL
FENOXYCARB+PERMETHRIN
IMIPROTHRIN+PERMETHRIN
Abamectin+Alpha-cypermethrin
Alpha-cypermethrin+Indoxacarb
Physical Properties
Molecular weight:391.3; Physical form:Tech. is a yellow-brown to brown liquid, which sometimes tends to crystallise partly at room temperature. Density:1.29 (20 °C); Melting point:34-35 °C; cis- isomers 63-65 °C; trans- 44-47 °C; Flash point:>100 °C ('Perigen'); Vapour pressure:cis- 0.0025 mPa; trans- 0.0015 mPa (both 20 °C) (D. Wells et al., Pestic. Sci., 1986, 17, 473); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 6.1 (20 °C); Solubility:In water 6 × 10-3 mg/l ( pH 7, 20 °C). In xylene, hexane >1000, methanol 258 (all in g/ kg, 25 °C).; Stability:Stable to heat (2 y at 50 °C), more stable in acidic than alkaline media with optimum stability c. pH 4; DT50 50 d ( pH 9), stable ( pH 5, 7) (all 25 °C).
Toxicology
Oral:Oral LD50 values of permethrin depend on such factors as: carrier, cis/trans ratio of the sample, the test species, its sex, age and degree of fasting; values reported sometimes differ markedly. Values for a < Percutaneous:Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2500, rabbits >2000 mg/kg. Mild eye and skin irritant (rabbits). Moderate skin sensitiser. Inhalation: LC50 (3 h) for mice and rats >685 mg/m3 air; (separate study
Environmental Profile
Ecotoxicology: 
Bees:Toxic to bees. LD50 (24 h) (oral) 0.098µg/bee; (topical) 0.029µg/bee.Birds:Typical oral LD50 values for a cis/trans ratio of c. 40:60 are: for chickens >3000, mallard ducks >9800, Japanese quail >13 500 mg/ kg.Daphnia: LC50 (48 h) 0.6µg/l.Fish: LC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout 2.5µg/l; (48 h) for rainbow trout 5.4, bluegill sunfish 1.8µg/l. 

Environmental fate: 
EHC 94 concludes that permethrin is not likely to be a hazard to the environment when used as recommended.Animals:In mammals, there is hydrolysis of the ester bond, hydroxylation, and elimination as the glucoside conjugate (M. Elliott et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1976, 24, 270; L. C. Gaughan et al., ibid.,Soil:In soil and water, degradation is rapid. DT50 in soil <38 d ( pH 4.2-7.7, o.m. 1.3-51.3%) (R. L. Holmstead et. al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1978, 26, 590). WATER SOLUBILITY: <1 ppm HAZARDS: Fish, Bee: Highly toxic in laboratory tests; low in field tests. Bird: Practically nontoxic
Transport Information
Signal Word:CAUTION; Hazard Class:II(Moderately hazardous)

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