Crop Protection Database

Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides

Summary | Products

Class and mechanism

Neonicotinoids are a class of insecticides which act on the central nervous system of insects with lower toxicity to mammals.

The mode of action of neonicotinoids is similar to the natural insecticide nicotine, which acts on the central nervous system. In insects, neonicotinoids cause paralysis which leads to death, often within a few hours. However, they are much less toxic to mammals and under the WHO / EPA classification these compounds are placed toxicity class II or class III. Because the neonicotinoids block a specific neural pathway that is more abundant in insects than warm-blooded animals, these insecticides are selectively more toxic to insects than mammals.

They bind at a specific site, the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and there are no records of cross-resistance to the carbamate, organophosphate, or synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, thus making them important for management of insecticide resistance. As a group they are effective against sucking insects such as aphids, but also chewing insects such as Coleoptera and some Lepidoptera.

Current use status of neonicotinoid insecticides

The neonicotinoid insecticides are the most important insecticides introduced to global market since the synthetic pyrethroids. Today, Neonicotinoids are registered globally in more than 120 countries and found to be effective against sucking pests such as aphids, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips, whiteflies, etc and accounted for a worldwide turnover of approx. 1.7 billion US.

Available neonicotinoidinsecticides include:Acetamiprid; Clothianidin; Dinotefuran; Imidacloprid; Nitenpyram; Thiacloprid; Thiamethoxam.

Imidacloprid is possibly the most widely used insecticide, both within the mode of action group and in the worldwide market. It is now applied against soil, seed, timber and animal pests as well as foliar treatments for crops including: cereals, cotton, grain, legumes, potatoes, pome fruits, rice, turf and vegetables. It is systemic with particularly effective against sucking insects and has a long residual activity. The application rates for neonicotinoid insecticides are much lower than older, traditionally used insecticides.

Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a second generation neonicotinoid insecticide, belonging to the thianicotinyl subclass. Thiamethoxams chemical structure is slightly different from other neonicotinoid insecticides, making it highly water soluble and thus it is readily translocated in plant tissue. TMX is systemic and penetrates into the plant cells where it also triggers various physiological reactions,[3] which induce the expression of specific functional proteins involved in various stress defense mechanisms of the plant allowing it to better cope under tough growing conditions, such as:Drought;Low pH;High soil salinity;Free radicals from UV radiation;Heat stress leading to protein degradation; Toxic levels of aluminum; Wounding from pests, wind, hail, etc., and;Virus attack.

Environmental impact

There is controversy over the role of neonicotinoids in relation to pesticide toxicity to bees and imidacloprid effects on bee population. Neonicotinoid use has been strictly limited in France since the 1990s, when neonicotinoids were implicated in a mass die-off of the bee population. It is believed by some to account for worker bees neglecting to provide food for eggs and larvae, and for a breakdown of the bees navigational abilities and possibly leading to what has become generally known as Colony Collapse Disorder, which is usually associated with the mite pest Varroa destructor.

In May 2008, Germany banned seed treatment with neonicotinoids due to negative effects upon bee colonies. Bee keepers suffered a severe decline linked to the use of clothianidin in the Baden-Württemberg region of Germany, allegedly connected to a failure to apply a glue agent that affixes the compound to the coats of seeds. The manufacturer maintains that without the fixative agent, the compound drifted into the environment from sown rapeseed and sweetcorn and then affected the honeybees.

Products ( 11 )
Product NameCAS No.Category
Sulfoxaflor
氟啶虫胺腈
946578-00-3Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Imidaclothiz
氯噻啉
105843-36-5Insecticides > Thiazole insecticides
Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Paichongding
哌虫啶
 Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Acetamiprid
啶虫脒
135410-20-7Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Thiamethoxam
噻虫嗪
153719-23-4Insecticides > Thiazole insecticides
Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Thiacloprid
噻虫啉
111988-49-9Insecticides > Thiazolidine insecticides
Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Nitenpyram
烯啶虫胺
150824-47-8Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Nithiazine
硝虫噻嗪
58842-20-9Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Imidacloprid
吡虫啉
138261-41-3Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Dinotefuran
呋虫胺
165252-70-0Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides
Clothianidin
噻虫胺
210880-92-5 (formerly 205510-53-8)Insecticides > Thiazole insecticides
Insecticides > Neonicotinoid insecticides

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