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Chemical Identification
Common Name
Molecular Formula
Molecular Structure
Biochemistry Microtubule assembly inhibition. Mode of action Selective systemic herbicide, absorbed by the roots, with apoplastic translocation. Rates vary from 0.56–2.2 kg/ha. Phytotoxicity Certain varieties of lettuce may be injured at higher dose rates. Cool season grass species are also susceptible.
Uses Selective control of many annual and perennial grasses, and some broad-leaved weeds, in fruit, vines, lettuce, endive, chicory, brassicas, oilseed rape, legumes, alfalfa, clover, trefoil, sainfoin, artichokes, sugar beet, roses, ornamental trees and shrubs, warm season amenity grass, on fallow land, and in forestry. Also control of Poa annua in Bermuda grass, Zoysia, and certain other turf species. Used either pre-emergence or early post-emergence. Compatibility Compatible with many other herbicides to extend weed spectrum.
Weed Spectrum
Uses Selective control of many annual and perennial grasses, and some broad-leaved weeds.
DP = Dustable powder
HN = Hot fogging conecntrate
SC = Suspension concentrate (=flowable concentrate)
SP = Soluble powder
WG = Water dispersible granules
Incompatible with alkaline materials.
Physical Properties
Molecular weight:256.1; Physical form:Colourless, odourless powder. Melting point:155-156 °C; Vapour pressure:0.058 mPa (25 °C); Henry constant:9.90 × 10-4 Pa m3 mol-1 ( calc.); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = c. 3.1-3.2; Solubility:In water 15 mg/l (25 °C). In methanol, isopropanol 150, cyclohexanone, methyl ethyl ketone 200, dimethyl sulfoxide 330 (all in g/l). Moderately soluble in benzene, xylene, carbon tetrachloride. Slightly soluble in petroleum ether.; Stability:Decomposes above melting point. Degraded photolytically on soil thin films, DT50 13-57 d in artificial sunlight. In solution for 28 d ( pH 5-9, 20 °C) <10% loss.
Oral:Acute oral LD50 for male rats 8350, female rats 5620, dogs >10 000 mg/ kg. Percutaneous:Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >3160 mg/kg. Slightly irritating to eyes and skin. Inhalation: LC50 for rats >5.0 mg/l. Phytotoxicity:Certain varieties of lettuce may be injured at higher dose rates. ADI:( JMPR) 0.02 mg/ kg b.w. [1989].
Environmental Profile
Ecotoxicology: Bees:Not hazardous to bees; LD50 >100µg a.i./bee.Birds:Acute oral LD50 for Japanese quail 8770, mallard ducks >14 mg/kg. Dietary LC50 (8 d) for bobwhite quail and mallard ducks >10 000 ppm.Daphnia: LC50 (48 h) >5.6 mg a.i./lFish: LC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout >4.7, carp >5.1 mg a.i./l.Worms: LC50 for earthworms >346 ppm. Environmental fate: Animals:For metabolism in animals and plants, see R. Y. Yih et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1971, 19, 314-324; J. D. Fisher, ibid., 1974, 22, 606-608; J. M. Cantier et al.Soil: DT50 in soil (25 °C) c. 30 d. For further metabolism in soil, see refs. given under Animals. Duration of residual activity in soil, following an application rate of 1-4 kg/8 ha, is c.
Transport Information
Hazard Class:III(Slightly hazardous)

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