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Chemical Identification
Common Name
Nicotine
中文通用名
烟碱
IUPAC
(S)-3-(1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridine
CAS
3-[(2S)-1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]pyridine
CAS No.
54-11-5
Molecular Formula
C10H14N2
Molecular Structure
Physical Properties
Molecular weight:162.2g/mol; Physical form:Colourless liquid (darkens rapidly on exposure to light and air). Density:1.01 (20℃); Composition:The predominant component of the crude alkaloid extract is (S)-(-)- nicotine; small amounts of related alkaloids may be present. Melting point:-80℃; Flash point:101 ℃; Vapour pressure:5.65 Pa (25℃); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 0.93 (25℃, unionised, K. Chamberlain et al., Pestic. Sci., 47, 265 (1996)); pKa: pKa1 3.1, pKa2 8.2 (K. Chamberlain et al., Pestic. Sci., 47, 265 (1996)); Solubility:Miscible with water below 60℃, forming a hydrate, and above 210℃. Miscible with diethyl ether, ethanol; readily soluble in most organic solvents.; Stability:On exposure to air, darkens and becomes viscous. Forms salts with acids.
Toxicology
Oral:Acute oral LD50 for rats 50-60 mg/ kg.Percutaneous:Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits 50 mg/kg. Readily absorbed through the skin.Toxic to man by skin contact. Inhalation:Toxic to man by inhalation.
Environmental Profile
Ecotoxicology:
Bees:Toxic to bees, but has a repellent effect.Birds:Toxic to birds.Daphnia: LC50 for D. Pulex 0.24 mg/l.Fish: LC50 for larval rainbow trout 4 mg/l.

Environmental fate: Soil:
Nicotine decomposes relatively quickly under the influence of light and air.
Transport Information
Signal Word:DANGER; Hazard Class:Ib(Highly hazardous)

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