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Chemical Identification
Common Name
Pyrithiobac-sodium
中文通用名
嘧草硫醚
IUPAC
sodium 2-chloro-6-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ylthio)benzoate
CAS
sodium 2-chloro-6-[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)thio]benzoate
CAS No.
123343-16-8
Molecular Formula
C13H10ClN2NaO4S
Molecular Structure
Category
Activity
Herbicide.Pyrithiobac-sodium is primarily a post-emergence herbicide though it can be used from pre- to post-emergence since the compound exhibits residual activity. It is taken up rapidly by roots and shoots and has greatest activity when applied at the 1-3 leaf stage of the weeds. Death occurs 10-14 days after application. Activity is enhanced by the addition of adjuvants such as: non-ionic surfactants; silicon-type adjuvants; and crop oil concentrates. Tank mixes with bromoxynil and/or glyphosate have extended pyrithiobac sodium's weed control spectrum and it is suitable for use on cotton genetically modified to be tolerant to these herbicides. Pyrithiobac has, however, been shown to be antagonistic to some other herbicides in tank mixes. FMC recommends that pyrithiobac-sodium is applied with clomazone pre-emergence, or early post-emergence following clomazone.

When applied post-emergence, pyrithiobac-sodium does not damage the cotton crop at the recommended use rate. Some chlorosis and stunting has been observed, but the quality and yield of cotton is not affected. It is safe to rotational crops. Early-season insecticides can be applied in mixtures or in sequence with pyrithiobac-sodium without crop injury, although some weakening of the cotton fibre has been observed. In field trials, pyrithiobac-sodium gave better control of weeds than commercial standards at lower application rates.
CropUse
CropUses:
cotton

Cotton

35 g ai/ha (pre-emergence)

 

70 g ai/ha (post-emergence)

Physical Properties
Molecular weight:348.7; Physical form:White solid. Density:1.609; Composition:Tech. is >93%. Melting point:233.8-234.2 °C ( decomp.); Vapour pressure:4.80 × 10-6 mPa (25 °C); Partition coefficient(n-octanol and water):logP = 0.6 ( pH 5), -0.84 ( pH 7); pKa:2.34; Solubility:In water 264 ( pH 5), 705 ( pH 7), 690 ( pH 9), 728 (unbuffered) (all in g/l, 20 °C). In acetone 812, methanol 270 × 103, n-hexane 10, dichloromethane 8.38 (all in mg<; Stability:Stable in water (32 d, pH 5-9, 27 °C) and to heat (15 d at 54 °C).
Toxicology
Oral:Acute oral LD50 for male rats 3300, female rats 3200 mg/ kg. Percutaneous:Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >2000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to skin; irritating to eyes (rabbits). Inhalation: LC50 (4 h) for rats >6.9 mg/l. Phytotoxicity:Non-phytotoxic to cotton when applied as directed. ADI:( JMPR) 0.1 mg/ kg b.w. [1999].
Environmental Profile
Ecotoxicology: 
Algae: EC50 (5 d) for Selenastrum capricornutum 107µg/l; NOEC for S. capricornutum 22.8 mg/l.Bees: LD50 (48 h, contact) >25µg/bee.Birds:Acute oral LD50 for bobwhite quail >2250 mg/ kg b.w. Dietary LC50 (5 d) for mallard ducks and bobwhite quail >5620 mg/ kg50 (48 h) >1100 mg/l.Fish: LC50 (96 h) for bluegill sunfish >930, rainbow trout >1000, sheepshead minnow >145 mg/l. 

Environmental fate: 
Animals:More than 90% of radiolabelled pyrithiobac, applied orally and intravenously at 5 mg/ kg to rats, was excreted in urine and faeces within 48 h; the major excreted metabolite was the O-desmethyl derivative. PyrithiSoil:Microbial and photochemical degradation play a major role in degradation in the environment; DT50 in silty soil 60 d. Kd 0.32 (sandy loam), 0.60, 0.38, 0.75 (3 silty loam soils).Plant:Amounts of pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton leaves rapidly decreased, following foliar application; at 62 dat, no residues were found; major metabolites found in foliage were the phenol formed by mono-demethylation, and its glucose conjugate. WATER SOLUBILITY: Soluble, 1% wt/wt (pH 5.6)
Fate in soil:
Pyrithiobac-sodium is degraded primarily by soil microbes. It has a soil half-life of approximately 60 days.

Fate in aquatic systems:
Pyrithiobac-sodium is degraded photochemically in water.

Transport Information
Signal Word:WARNING; Hazard Class:II(Moderately hazardous)

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