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Chemical Identification
Common Name
Thiacloprid
中文通用名
噻虫啉
IUPAC
(Z)-3-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidenecyanamide
CAS
(Z)-[3-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-2-thiazolidinylidene]cyanamide
CAS No.
111988-49-9
Molecular Formula
C10H9ClN4S
Molecular Structure
Category
Activity
Aphicide; Insecticide

Like imidacloprid, thiacloprid is an agonist at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Consequently, there is no cross-resistance to insecticides from the pyrethroid, organophosphate or carbamate families and thus thiacloprid can be recommended for inclusion in insect resistance management strategies. Although similar in structure to imidacloprid, thiacloprid is reported to bring significant advantages, particularly in the control of pests in pome- and stone-fruits, e.g. codling moth, oriental peach moth, cherry fruit fly and the Mediterranean fruit fly. Thiacloprid is also effective against blossom beetle in oilseed rape and the olive fruit fly.

Field trials (ISHS Acta Hort. 585) indicate a good potential for the control of aphids, leafminers, scale insects, weevils, Lygus spp and Byturus tomentosus in berry fruits.

In the US, Calypso is labelled for use on apples at 2-4 fl oz / acre for the control of aphids, leaf miners, leaf hoppers and mirid bugs and at the higher rate of 4-8 fl oz / acre for the control of codling moths, plum curculios and suppression of scale insects and apple maggots. In pears, Calypso is recommended at 4-8 fl oz acre for the control of pear psylla, aphids, mealy bugs, leaf miners and pear midges and the suppression of scale insects.

Trials in the US in 2000-2001 (Univ. Arizona) showed that Calypso could provide a commercial alternative to Admire (imidacloprid) for the control of whitefly in melons. Applied as a foliar, post-plant spray, with two applications, to low densities of immature and adult insects, Calypso provided 14-21 days residual control and minimised yield and quality losses in spring melons.
CropUse
CropUses:
apples, brassicas, camellias, cherries, citrus, cotton, cucumbers, loquats, maybushes, melons, nectarines, ornamentals, peaches, pears, peppers, plums, pome fruits, potatoes, raspberries, rice, roses, squash, stone fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, vegetables, vines

Cotton

48-100 g ai/ha

Pome & stone fruits

90-180 g ai/ha

Potato

48-96 g ai/ha

Tobacco

48-96 g ai/ha

Vegetables

96-180 g ai/ha

Pest Spectrum
Control of pests in pome- and stone-fruits, e.g. codling moth, oriental peach moth, cherry fruit fly and the Mediterranean fruit fly. Effective against blossom beetle in oilseed rape and the olive fruit fly. Control of aphids, leafminers, scale insects, weevils in berry fruits.
Formulation
CS = Capsule suspension
GR = Granule
OF = Oil miscible flowable
SC = Suspension concentrate (=flowable concentrate)
WG = Water dispersible granules
Premix
Spirotetramat+thiacloprid
Bifenthrin+Thiacloprid
Diafenthiuron+Thiacloprid
Physical Properties
Molecular weight:252.7; Physical form:Yellowish powder. Vapour pressure:3 × 10-7 mPa (20 °C); Solubility:In water 185 mg/l (20 °C).;
Toxicology
Oral:Acute oral LD50 for male rats 836, female rats 444 mg/kg. Percutaneous:Acute dermal LD50 for male and female rats >2000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to skin and eyes (rabbits). Not a skin sensitiser (guinea pigs). Inhalation:(4 h) for male rats >2535, female rats c. 1223 mg/m3 air (aerosol).
Environmental Profile
Ecotoxicology: 
Algae: ErC50 (72 h, 20 °C) for Scenedesmus subspicatus 97 mg/l.Bees: LD50 (oral) 5.3 µg/bee; (contact) 24.2 µg/bee.Birds:Acute oral LD50 for bobwhite quail 2716 mg/kg.Daphnia: EC50 (48 h, 20 °C) ×85.1 mg/l.Fish: LC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout 30.5 mg/l.Worms: LC50 (14 d, 20 °C) for Eisenia fetida 105 mg/kg. 

Environmental fate: 
Soil:Soil DT50 (6 soils) 7-21 d; soil mobility (6 soils) low to medium.

Rainbow trout [96 h]

LC50 30.5 mg/L

Bobwhite quail

LD50 2716 mg/kg

Green algae [72 h]

EbC5044.7 mg/L

Bee [contact]

LD50 24.2μg/bee

Mallard duck [5 d]

LC50 >5000 mg/kg food

Bee [oral]

LD50 5.3 μg/bee

Daphnia magna[48 h, 20C]

EC50 385.1 mg/L

Bluegill sunfish [96 h]

LC50 >16.7 < 28.4 mg/L

Earthworms [14 d, 20C]

LC50 105 mg/kg dry weight substrate

Fate in :
Thiacloprid shows low acute toxicity to birds, moderate toxicity to fish and slight toxicity to earthworms. Freshwater algae and duckweed are not sensitive to thiacloprid or its major metabolites. Bees are not sensitive to thiacloprid in acute oral, contact and semi-field tests. The effect on beneficials is variable, depending on the species.

Fate in soil:
In the laboratory, the DT50for thiacloprid in soil photolysis studies is 74 days.
Thiacloprid degrades rapidly in soil; the aerobic soil metabolism DT50 is 0.4 to 2.6 days and the DT90 is 11.7 – 29 days (laboratory study on four soils). The two major metabolites (an amide and a sulphonic acid) were shown to degrade with DT50 values of 32-142 and 16-79 days, respectively.
Degradation in anaerobic soil (laboratory study) is much slower; the DT50 for thiacloprid is greater than one year (64-74% parent remaining after 360 days with 89% of the residual parent located in the sediment).
Koc values in six soils were 261-870 ml/g indicating medium to low mobility in soil. The Koc of the amide metabolite is 166-438 ml/g (medium mobility) while the sulfonic acid metabolite is classed as very highly mobile with a Koc of 11.9-28.2 ml/g. Field lysimeter studies in sandy loam with a grass cover were conducted over a period of three years. No parent thiacloprid or amide metabolite was detected in the leachates. The sulfonic acid metabolite was detected in the leachates in year two. After three years, no radiolabelled residues were observed below a depth of 40 cm.
In field dissipation studies, the DT50 and DT90 values for thiacloprid applied at 288 g ai/ha to bare soil were 3.4-27 and 31-91 days, respectively. No residues were detected in the 20-30 cm soil layer.

Fate in aquatic systems:
Thiacloprid is stable to hydrolysis at pH 5-9. The aqueous photolysis DT50is 324 days.

Transport Information
Hazard Class:O (Obsolete as pesticide, not classified)

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