Crop Protection Database

Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides

Summary | Products
Pyrethroid pesticides are synthetic analogues of pyrethrins, which are natural chemicals found in chrysanthemum flowers, in a natural environment, they were chemically unstable and broke down rapidly upon exposure to air and sunlight. Beginning in the 1970s, synthetic pyrethroids came into the market for agricultural purposes. Their desirable features are providing a quick knockdown of insects at low rates, relatively low mammalian toxicity and improved stability in outdoor environments, which has increased their marketability in agriculture. Pyrethroid pesticides are used to control a wide range of insects in public and commercial buildings, animal facilities, warehouses, agricultural fields, and greenhouses. They are also applied on livestock to control insects. In agriculture, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, and deltamethrin have been used frequently on cotton. Pyrethroid insecticides are the most common active ingredients in commercially available insect sprays and are also used as structural termiticides. Formulations that are commercially available include aerosols, dips, emulsifiable concentrates, wettable powders, granules, and concentrates for ultra low volume applications targeting mosquitoes. Pyrethroids may be mixed with piperonyl butoxide, a synergist, which enhances the effect of the active ingredient. Their mode of action is interference with transmission of nerve impulses.

Development

Pyrethroids were introduced thirty years ago, by a team of Rothamsted Research scientists led by M. Elliott, and represented a major advancement in activity and relatively-low mammalian toxicity. Their development was especially timely with the identification of problems with DDT use. Their work consisted firstly of identifying the most active components of pyrethrum, extracted from East African chrysanthemum flowers and long known to have insecticidal properties. Pyrethrum rapidly knocks down flying insects, but has a low mammalian toxicity and negligible persistence - which is good for the environment but gives poor efficacy when applied in the field. Pyrethroids are essentially chemically stabilized forms of natural pyrethrum and belong to IRAC MoA group 3 (they interfere with sodium transport in insect nerve cells).

The 1st generation pyrethroids, developed in the 1960s, include bioallethrin, tetramethrin, resmethrin and bioresmethrin. They are more active than the natural pyrethrum, but are unstable in sunlight. Activity of pyrethrum and 1st generation pyrethroids is often enhanced by addition of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (which is not itself biologically active). With the 91/414/EEC review, many 1st generation compounds have not been included on Annex 1, probably because the market is simply not big enough to warrant the costs of re-registration (rather than any special concerns about safety).

By 1974, the Rothamsted team had discovered a 2nd generation of more persistent compounds notably: permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin. They are substantially more resistant to degradation by light and air, thus making them suitable for use in agriculture, but they have significantly higher mammalian toxicities. Over the subsequent decades these were followed with other proprietary compounds such as fenvalerate, lambda-cyhalothrin and beta-cyfluthrin, but most patents have now expired, making them cheap and therefore popular (although permethrin and fenvalerate have not been re-registered under the 91/414/EEC process). One of the less desirable characteristics, especially of 2nd generation pyrethroids is that they can be irritant to the skin and eyes, so special formulations such as capsule suspensions (CS) have been developed.

Toxicity

Pyrethroid pesticides have low volatility, bind to soils, and are rarely detected in ground waters (USGS, 2007). Generally, they are not persistent in the environment due to their rapid degradation within days to several months. This class of pesticides has low toxicity in birds and mammals, but pyrethroids are highly toxic to fish and some aquatic invertebrates, so usage is restricted near water.

Human health effects from pyrethroid pesticides at low environmental doses or at biomonitored levels from low environmental exposures are unknown. Compared with other classes of insecticides such as organochlorines, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides, pyrethroid pesticides have less acute toxicity in animals and people. They are ranked as having moderate acute oral toxicity. Adverse effects from large doses are related to the action of pyrethroids on the nervous system, where these chemicals prolong sodium channel opening when a nerve cell is depolarized. Possible other additional actions on neuroreceptors and other ion channels may also explain some pyrethroid effects.
Products ( 70 )
Product NameCAS No.Category
kappa-tefluthrin
391634-71-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
kappa-bifenthrin
439680-76-9Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Brofluthrinate
溴氟菊酯
160791-64-0Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Brofenvalerate
溴灭菊酯
65295-49-0Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Butethrin
苄烯菊酯
28288-05-3Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Bromethrin
溴苄呋菊酯
42789-03-7Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Chlorempenthrin
氯烯炔菊酯
54407-47-5Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
D-fanshiluquebingjuzhi
右旋反式氯炔丙菊酯
Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Furamethrin
炔呋菊酯
23031-38-1Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Japothrins
喃烯菊酯
10597-73-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Meperfluthrin
氯氟醚菊酯
915288-13-0Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Pentmethrin
戊烯氰氯菊酯
79302-84-4Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Proparthrin
甲呋炔菊酯
27223-49-0Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Tralocythrin
溴氯氰菊酯
66481-26-7Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Thiofluoximate
硫氟肟醚
Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Valerate
戊菊酯
51630-33-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Etofenprox
醚菊酯
80844-07-1Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Esfenvalerate
S-氰戊菊酯
66230-04-4Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Insecticides > Insecticide premix
Cyphenothrin
苯醚氰菊酯

39515-40-7

Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Zeta-cypermethrin
Z-氯氰菊酯
52315-07-8Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Theta-cypermethrin
高效反式氯氰菊酯
71697-59-1Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Beta-cypermethrin
高效氯氰菊酯
65731-84-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Cypermethrin
氯氰菊酯
52315-07-8Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Beta-cyfluthrin
高效氟氯氰菊酯
68359-37-5Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Transpermethrin
52341-32-9Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Transfluthrin
四氟苯菊酯
118712-89-3Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Tralomethrin
四溴菊酯
66841-25-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Terallethrin
环戊烯丙菊酯
15589-31-8Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Tefluthrin
七氟菊酯
79538-32-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Silafluofen
氟硅菊酯
105024-66-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Resmethrin
苄呋菊酯
10453-86-8Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Pyresmethrin
24624-58-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Protrifenbute
119544-94-4Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Profluthrin
223419-20-3Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Prallethrin
炔丙菊酯
23031-36-9Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Tetramethrin
胺菊酯
7696-12-0Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Insecticides > Phthalimide insecticides
Phenothrin
苯醚菊酯
26002-80-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Permethrin
氯菊酯
52645-53-1Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Metofluthrin
甲氧苄氟菊酯
240494-70-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Imiprothrin
炔咪菊酯
72963-72-5Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Halfenprox
苄螨醚
111872-58-3Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Furethrin
抗虫菊
17080-02-3Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Tau-fluvalinate
氟胺氰菊酯
102851-06-9Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Fluvalinate
69409-94-5Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Flufenprox
三氟醚菊酯
107713-58-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Flucythrinate
氟氰戊菊酯
70124-77-5Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Fenvalerate
氰戊菊酯
51630-58-1Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Fenpropathrin
甲氰菊酯
39515-41-8Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Fenpirithrin
吡氯氰菊酯
68523-18-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Fenfluthrin
五氟苯菊酯
75867-00-4Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Empenthrin
右旋烯炔菊酯
54406-48-3Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Dimethrin
苄菊酯
70-38-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Dimefluthrin
四氟甲醚菊酯
271241-14-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Deltamethrin
溴氰菊酯
52918-63-5Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Cyhalothrin
氯氟氰菊酯
68085-85-8Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Lambda-cyhalothrin
高效氯氟氰菊酯
91465-08-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
GAMMA-CYHALOTHRIN
精高效氯氟氰菊酯
76703-62-3Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Cyfluthrin
氟氯氰菊酯
68359-37-5Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Cycloprothrin
乙氰菊酯
63935-38-6Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Cyclethrin
环虫菊酯
97-11-0Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Cismethrin
35764-59-1Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Biopermethrin
生物氯菊酯
51877-74-8Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Bioresmethrin
生物苄呋菊酯
28434-01-7Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Bioethanomethrin
22431-62-5Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Bifenthrin
联苯菊酯
82657-04-3Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Barthrin
椒菊酯
70-43-9Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Alpha-cypermethrin
顺式氯氰菊酯
67375-30-8Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides
Allethrin
烯丙菊酯
584-79-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Bioallethrin
生物烯丙菊酯
584-79-2Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acrinathrin
氟丙菊酯
101007-06-1Insecticides > Pyrethroid insecticides
Acaricides / Miticides > Pyrethroid acaricides

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